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  • The original Osaka castle was built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi on the original site of Ishiyama Honganji Temple, burnt down by Oda Nobunaga. It was symbolic to Hideyoshi's power and the new unified Japan under Hideyoshi's rule. Only few years after Hideyoshi's death, his old friend and rival Tokugawa Ieyasu fought a war against Toyotomi clan and won, Osaka Castle was destroyed, alone with Hideyoshi's son Hideyori. Toyotomi's rule was ended, Tokugawa Shogunate was established, and Osaka Castle was rebuilt, one more.

To me, this part of history make Osaka Castle far more romantic than Himeji Castle, for it symbolised the never ending cycle of destroy and rebirth, just like phoenix arises from its ashes, just like dawn arises from where the dusk fall.
🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯
舊大阪城是豐臣秀吉在被他的故主織田信長燒燬的石山本願寺的舊址上建成的。它象徵著秀吉的權利和被他統一的,新的日本。然而,秀吉死後不過數年,他的老友和老對頭德川家康就發動了對豐臣家的戰爭并勝出,大阪城被再次摧毁,秀吉之子秀賴自殺,豐臣幕府被終結,德川幕府興起,然後德川家再次重建了大阪城。

對我來說,大阪城的歷史遠比有姬路城要來的浪漫,因為它象徵的破与立的循環,就像鳳凰浴火重生,就像黎明在暮色消逝之後方才到來。
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#日本 #japan #osaka #大阪 #japan_of_insta #japan_photo_now #japan🇯🇵 #ig_japangram #olympusomd #em5markii #1240f28pro #olympuscamera #m43 #microfourthirds 
#photographysoul #photographyworld #photographys #photography_lovers #travellingram #neverstoptravelling #ilovetravelling  #osakajapan #osakacastle #osakatrip #osaka🇯🇵 #gambaosaka #castles #castles_oftheworld #castle🏰 #ancienthistory
  • The original Osaka castle was built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi on the original site of Ishiyama Honganji Temple, burnt down by Oda Nobunaga. It was symbolic to Hideyoshi's power and the new unified Japan under Hideyoshi's rule. Only few years after Hideyoshi's death, his old friend and rival Tokugawa Ieyasu fought a war against Toyotomi clan and won, Osaka Castle was destroyed, alone with Hideyoshi's son Hideyori. Toyotomi's rule was ended, Tokugawa Shogunate was established, and Osaka Castle was rebuilt, one more.

    To me, this part of history make Osaka Castle far more romantic than Himeji Castle, for it symbolised the never ending cycle of destroy and rebirth, just like phoenix arises from its ashes, just like dawn arises from where the dusk fall.
    🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯🏯
    舊大阪城是豐臣秀吉在被他的故主織田信長燒燬的石山本願寺的舊址上建成的。它象徵著秀吉的權利和被他統一的,新的日本。然而,秀吉死後不過數年,他的老友和老對頭德川家康就發動了對豐臣家的戰爭并勝出,大阪城被再次摧毁,秀吉之子秀賴自殺,豐臣幕府被終結,德川幕府興起,然後德川家再次重建了大阪城。

    對我來說,大阪城的歷史遠比有姬路城要來的浪漫,因為它象徵的破与立的循環,就像鳳凰浴火重生,就像黎明在暮色消逝之後方才到來。
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    #日本 #japan #osaka #大阪 #japan_of_insta #japan_photo_now #japan 🇯🇵 #ig_japangram #olympusomd #em5markii #1240f28pro #olympuscamera #m43 #microfourthirds
    #photographysoul #photographyworld #photographys #photography_lovers #travellingram #neverstoptravelling #ilovetravelling #osakajapan #osakacastle #osakatrip #osaka 🇯🇵 #gambaosaka #castles #castles_oftheworld #castle 🏰 #ancienthistory
  • 271 32 9 hours ago

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  • Golden Tomb.

The long colourful stairway in the Tomb of Ramesses VI has been open since antiquity and the paint is still as vibrant today as it was over 3000 years ago.

Along the great stairway we see inscriptions from the Book of the Dead, the Caverns and the Amduat. All these literary texts were important funerary books that would decorate the walls in tombs just like that of Ramesses VI.

The tomb attracted visitors in antiquity who left their own graffiti. There are estimated to be around 650 individual graffitos left by ancient Romans and ancient Greeks. Napoleon and his marauding men also visited the tomb during his disastrous Egyptian Campaign.

Scholars believe the tomb was originally built for Ramesses V who may of been interred there for some time. It is said that Ramesses VI moved his predecessor’s body to another, still undiscovered tomb.

This was clearly an usurping act and is strong evidence to suggest that Ramesses VI wanted to belittle and destroy his predecessor’s name.

I think the long stairway in Ramesses tomb is one of the great wonders of Egypt. What do you think?

#ancientegypt #ancient #egypt #egyptian #ancienthistory #history #historic #tomb #pyramid #cairo #jewelry #egyptshots #tutankhamun #pharoah #egyptology #archaeology #gold #beautiful #love #wow #fact #interesting #art #museum #human #world #location #civilization #photography #travel
  • Golden Tomb.

    The long colourful stairway in the Tomb of Ramesses VI has been open since antiquity and the paint is still as vibrant today as it was over 3000 years ago.

    Along the great stairway we see inscriptions from the Book of the Dead, the Caverns and the Amduat. All these literary texts were important funerary books that would decorate the walls in tombs just like that of Ramesses VI.

    The tomb attracted visitors in antiquity who left their own graffiti. There are estimated to be around 650 individual graffitos left by ancient Romans and ancient Greeks. Napoleon and his marauding men also visited the tomb during his disastrous Egyptian Campaign.

    Scholars believe the tomb was originally built for Ramesses V who may of been interred there for some time. It is said that Ramesses VI moved his predecessor’s body to another, still undiscovered tomb.

    This was clearly an usurping act and is strong evidence to suggest that Ramesses VI wanted to belittle and destroy his predecessor’s name.

    I think the long stairway in Ramesses tomb is one of the great wonders of Egypt. What do you think?

    #ancientegypt #ancient #egypt #egyptian #ancienthistory #history #historic #tomb #pyramid #cairo #jewelry #egyptshots #tutankhamun #pharoah #egyptology #archaeology #gold #beautiful #love #wow #fact #interesting #art #museum #human #world #location #civilization #photography #travel
  • 1,170 10 24 June, 2019

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  • When in Egypt, it's certainly a must that you would go to any and all temples you can to see these ancient monuments that still somehow stand. There's so many to see, and while a day trip to any of them will be exhilarating, there's a temple in Luxor (appropriately named Luxor Temple), that is at its most epic in the evening time.⁣
⁣
The special thing about this temple is that while others close earlier in the day, the Luxor Temple stays open later so you can get a glimpse of it at night. The architecture is lit up with lots of lights, making the entire place illuminated.⁣
⁣ 
If you've spent your day exploring all that the city of Luxor has to offer, but you're wondering what to do with your night, save Luxor Temple for when the sun goes down.
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If you want it to be extra special, go during blue hour, which is that sweet spot right at the end of sunset where there's still a little light in the sky, but dusk is approaching. ⁣
⁣. Who has visited The Temple of Luxor, we'd love to hear your tips. 
Follow @thehumanoriginproject⁣ 📷 @abdelrahmankhaledart
  • When in Egypt, it's certainly a must that you would go to any and all temples you can to see these ancient monuments that still somehow stand. There's so many to see, and while a day trip to any of them will be exhilarating, there's a temple in Luxor (appropriately named Luxor Temple), that is at its most epic in the evening time.⁣
    ⁣
    The special thing about this temple is that while others close earlier in the day, the Luxor Temple stays open later so you can get a glimpse of it at night. The architecture is lit up with lots of lights, making the entire place illuminated.⁣
    ⁣ 
    If you've spent your day exploring all that the city of Luxor has to offer, but you're wondering what to do with your night, save Luxor Temple for when the sun goes down.
    .
    If you want it to be extra special, go during blue hour, which is that sweet spot right at the end of sunset where there's still a little light in the sky, but dusk is approaching. ⁣
    ⁣. Who has visited The Temple of Luxor, we'd love to hear your tips.
    Follow @thehumanoriginproject⁣ 📷 @abdelrahmankhaledart
  • 780 7 5 hours ago

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  • Around 1200 BC in the nordic bronze age there was a violent clash between two armies in northern Germany by a river in a valley called Tollense.

Loads of bones and finds from the river suggests that around 4000 warriors participated.
This was no battle between local tribes but a battle between two armies who fought with weapons crafted from wood, flint and also bronze which was then the peak of military technology.
Men were riding horses, bashing their enemies skulls in with clubs and there were archers firing arrows from close range lodging arrows deep into the skulls and bones of young men.
(Pictures shows flint and bronze arrow heads lodged into the bones of fallen men)
The bones of the fallen shows alot of physical trauma and that it was indeed a very violent battle.
Studies shows that alot of the men had healed wounds from previous traumas which suggests that this was trained ”professional” warriors, not just some local farmers.
Second picture shows a wooden club and a wooden bat, a good reminder that everyone did not fight with shiny bronze swords in this period.

Studies of the skeletons shows that it was men in the age of 20-40 and of germanic and slavic(polish) origin, suggesting that these two ethnic groups fought and the germanics defeated a slavic attack.
  • Around 1200 BC in the nordic bronze age there was a violent clash between two armies in northern Germany by a river in a valley called Tollense.

    Loads of bones and finds from the river suggests that around 4000 warriors participated.
    This was no battle between local tribes but a battle between two armies who fought with weapons crafted from wood, flint and also bronze which was then the peak of military technology.
    Men were riding horses, bashing their enemies skulls in with clubs and there were archers firing arrows from close range lodging arrows deep into the skulls and bones of young men.
    (Pictures shows flint and bronze arrow heads lodged into the bones of fallen men)
    The bones of the fallen shows alot of physical trauma and that it was indeed a very violent battle.
    Studies shows that alot of the men had healed wounds from previous traumas which suggests that this was trained ”professional” warriors, not just some local farmers.
    Second picture shows a wooden club and a wooden bat, a good reminder that everyone did not fight with shiny bronze swords in this period.

    Studies of the skeletons shows that it was men in the age of 20-40 and of germanic and slavic(polish) origin, suggesting that these two ethnic groups fought and the germanics defeated a slavic attack.
  • 1,177 43 20 June, 2019

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  • Interrupting my daily canyon posts to say a new Peru  blog post is up! This one covers our last day in Cusco visiting the Inca museum (seeing the mummies) and visiting my favorite building in Cusco, the Qorikancha. .
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Visit trails2travel.com for more info and many more photos 😊
  • Interrupting my daily canyon posts to say a new Peru blog post is up! This one covers our last day in Cusco visiting the Inca museum (seeing the mummies) and visiting my favorite building in Cusco, the Qorikancha. .
    .
    .
    Visit trails2travel.com for more info and many more photos 😊
  • 4 1 7 minutes ago

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  • ⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
🧿 𝕋𝕙𝕖 ℙ𝕙𝕠𝕥𝕠 𝔼𝕞𝕠𝕥𝕚𝕠𝕟 ⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
🦅  𝒱𝒾𝓈𝒾𝓉 𝒫𝒽𝑜𝓉𝑜-𝑒𝓂𝑜𝓉𝒾𝑜𝓃.𝓈𝒾𝓉𝑒⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
🎥  𝗪𝗵𝗲𝗻 𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝗱𝗶𝘀𝗰𝗼𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘁𝗼 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗰𝗲𝘀𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗮𝗿𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗶𝘀 𝗯𝗼𝗿𝗻 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳-𝗹𝗼𝘃𝗲 #𝗟𝗼𝘃𝗲𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝘀𝘁 𝗮𝗺𝗮𝘇𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗷𝗼𝘂𝗿𝗻𝗲𝘆 𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿 𝘄𝗿𝗶𝘁𝘁𝗲𝗻 𝗼𝗿 𝗹𝗶𝘃𝗲𝗱 #𝗙𝗶𝗻𝗱𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳 𝘁𝗮𝗸𝗲𝘀 𝘆𝗼𝘂 𝘁𝗼 𝗳𝗮𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗳𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗱𝗼𝗼𝗿𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘄𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿 𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆 𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘄𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝘆𝗼𝘂 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗮𝗿𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗳𝗼𝗿 #𝗕𝗲𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳 𝗧𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝘄𝗶𝗹𝗹 𝗼𝗻𝗹𝘆 𝗯𝗲 𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝘄𝗮𝘆 𝘁𝗼 𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗰𝗵 𝗶𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗴𝗵 𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 #𝗖𝗿𝗲𝗮𝘁𝗲𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗳𝗲𝗰𝘁 𝘀𝘁𝗼𝗿𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗴𝗮𝗺𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗽𝗼𝗹𝗮𝗿𝗶𝘁𝘆 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗲𝗴𝗿𝗶𝘁𝘆. 𝗪𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝗻𝗸𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗯𝗲𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲𝘀 𝘁𝗼 𝗳𝗲𝗲𝗹. 𝗪𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿, 𝗶𝘀 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝘆𝗼𝘂. #𝗙𝗲𝗲𝗹𝗼𝗻𝗲𝗮𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 ⠀⠀ ══════════════════ ⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀ 𝓕𝓸𝓵𝓵𝓸𝔀 ➔ @the_photo_emotion 🌀 ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀ ⠀ 𝓕𝓸𝓵𝓵𝓸𝔀 ➔ @the_legacy_of_the_soul ♾ ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ══════════════════
⬆︎ Tᑌᖇᑎ Oᑎ ᑎOTIᖴIᑕᗩTIOᑎᔕ TO ᔕEE ᖴᑌTᑌᖇEᔕ ᑭOᔕT
⬆︎ 𝒞𝒽𝑒𝒸𝓀 𝐵𝒾𝑜
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    🧿 𝕋𝕙𝕖 ℙ𝕙𝕠𝕥𝕠 𝔼𝕞𝕠𝕥𝕚𝕠𝕟 ⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
    🦅 𝒱𝒾𝓈𝒾𝓉 𝒫𝒽𝑜𝓉𝑜-𝑒𝓂𝑜𝓉𝒾𝑜𝓃.𝓈𝒾𝓉𝑒⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
    🎥 𝗪𝗵𝗲𝗻 𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝗱𝗶𝘀𝗰𝗼𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗸𝗲𝘆 𝘁𝗼 𝘀𝘂𝗰𝗰𝗲𝘀𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗮𝗿𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗶𝘀 𝗯𝗼𝗿𝗻 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗸𝗲𝘆𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳-𝗹𝗼𝘃𝗲 #𝗟𝗼𝘃𝗲𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗺𝗼𝘀𝘁 𝗮𝗺𝗮𝘇𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗷𝗼𝘂𝗿𝗻𝗲𝘆 𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿 𝘄𝗿𝗶𝘁𝘁𝗲𝗻 𝗼𝗿 𝗹𝗶𝘃𝗲𝗱 #𝗙𝗶𝗻𝗱𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳 𝘁𝗮𝗸𝗲𝘀 𝘆𝗼𝘂 𝘁𝗼 𝗳𝗮𝗰𝗲 𝗼𝗳𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗱𝗼𝗼𝗿𝘀 𝗼𝗳 𝘄𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿 𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗹𝗹𝘆 𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝘄𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗵𝗮𝘃𝗲 𝘆𝗼𝘂 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲 𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗮𝗿𝗻𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝗳𝗼𝗿 #𝗕𝗲𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳 𝗧𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝘄𝗶𝗹𝗹 𝗼𝗻𝗹𝘆 𝗯𝗲 𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝘄𝗮𝘆 𝘁𝗼 𝗿𝗲𝗮𝗰𝗵 𝗶𝘁 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝘁𝗵𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗴𝗵 𝗰𝗿𝗲𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 #𝗖𝗿𝗲𝗮𝘁𝗲𝘆𝗼𝘂𝗿𝘀𝗲𝗹𝗳 𝗶𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗽𝗲𝗿𝗳𝗲𝗰𝘁 𝘀𝘁𝗼𝗿𝘆 𝗼𝗳 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗴𝗮𝗺𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗽𝗼𝗹𝗮𝗿𝗶𝘁𝘆 𝗶𝗻𝘁𝗲𝗴𝗿𝗶𝘁𝘆. 𝗪𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝗻𝗸𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗯𝗲𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗲𝘀 𝘁𝗼 𝗳𝗲𝗲𝗹. 𝗪𝗵𝗲𝗿𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿, 𝗶𝘀 𝗮𝗹𝘀𝗼 𝘆𝗼𝘂. #𝗙𝗲𝗲𝗹𝗼𝗻𝗲𝗮𝗻𝗼𝘁𝗵𝗲𝗿 ⠀⠀ ══════════════════ ⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀ 𝓕𝓸𝓵𝓵𝓸𝔀 ➔ @the_photo_emotion 🌀 ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀ ⠀ 𝓕𝓸𝓵𝓵𝓸𝔀 ➔ @the_legacy_of_the_soul ♾ ⠀⠀⠀⠀ ══════════════════
    ⬆︎ Tᑌᖇᑎ Oᑎ ᑎOTIᖴIᑕᗩTIOᑎᔕ TO ᔕEE ᖴᑌTᑌᖇEᔕ ᑭOᔕT
    ⬆︎ 𝒞𝒽𝑒𝒸𝓀 𝐵𝒾𝑜
  • 74 3 1 hour ago

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  • stolen from u/Oteemix2
IM ILL WHY DOES NATURE DO THIS TO ME
  • stolen from u/Oteemix2
    IM ILL WHY DOES NATURE DO THIS TO ME
  • 849 4 1 hour ago
  • Ancient hot spring...
  • Ancient hot spring...
  • 10 1 2 hours ago
  • The kids got postcards from their Grammie today! It spurred a mini lesson on ancient Grecian architecture and they decided to use some of their rainbow scratch cards to draw their own Greek ruins.
  • The kids got postcards from their Grammie today! It spurred a mini lesson on ancient Grecian architecture and they decided to use some of their rainbow scratch cards to draw their own Greek ruins.
  • 11 1 2 hours ago
  • Roman bath 2019, Bath City
  • Roman bath 2019, Bath City
  • 13 1 2 hours ago
  • The 2000 years old Roman Bath
  • The 2000 years old Roman Bath
  • 11 1 2 hours ago

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  • Caesar's record on a Gallic night attack at Alesia
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"Then at midnight they suddenly set out from their camp and moved towards our fortifications in the plain. They suddenly raised a shout to inform those besieged in the Oppidum of their approach, and then set about throwing wattles onto the trenches, driving our men off the rampart with slings and arrows and stones, and doing everything necessary to take our position by storm. At the same time Vercingetorix, hearing the noise of the shouting, sounded the trumpet and lead his forces out of the Oppidum. Our men moved up to the fortifications, each one taking up his allotted position, as on previous days. They kept the Gauls off with slings, large stones, bullets and stakes, which they had put ready at intervals along the rampart. It was impossible to see far because of the darkness, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. Many missiles were discharged by our artillery. The Legates Marcus Antonius and Caius Trebonius, who had been assigned to the defence of this sector, brought up men from the more distant redoubts and sent them in to reinforce any point where they had seen our men were under pressure. As long as the Gauls were at a distance from our fortification, they derived more advantage from the great numbers of missiles they were hurling. But when they came closer, the extra devices we had planted there took them by surprise. They got themselves caught up on the 'goads', or they fell into the pits and impaled themselves, or else they were pierced and killed by the javelins and siege spears that we hurled at them from the rampart and towers. They suffered many casualties at every point, but did not succeed anywhere in penetrating our lines of defence. - Julius Caesar, "The Gallic War", 7.81-82
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#Rome #Roma #RomanArmy #RomanLegion #RomanRepublic #SPQR #JuliusCaesar #Vercingetorix #Alesia #GallicWar #History #RomanHistory #AncientHistory #MilitaryHistory
  • Caesar's record on a Gallic night attack at Alesia
    ➖
    "Then at midnight they suddenly set out from their camp and moved towards our fortifications in the plain. They suddenly raised a shout to inform those besieged in the Oppidum of their approach, and then set about throwing wattles onto the trenches, driving our men off the rampart with slings and arrows and stones, and doing everything necessary to take our position by storm. At the same time Vercingetorix, hearing the noise of the shouting, sounded the trumpet and lead his forces out of the Oppidum. Our men moved up to the fortifications, each one taking up his allotted position, as on previous days. They kept the Gauls off with slings, large stones, bullets and stakes, which they had put ready at intervals along the rampart. It was impossible to see far because of the darkness, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. Many missiles were discharged by our artillery. The Legates Marcus Antonius and Caius Trebonius, who had been assigned to the defence of this sector, brought up men from the more distant redoubts and sent them in to reinforce any point where they had seen our men were under pressure. As long as the Gauls were at a distance from our fortification, they derived more advantage from the great numbers of missiles they were hurling. But when they came closer, the extra devices we had planted there took them by surprise. They got themselves caught up on the 'goads', or they fell into the pits and impaled themselves, or else they were pierced and killed by the javelins and siege spears that we hurled at them from the rampart and towers. They suffered many casualties at every point, but did not succeed anywhere in penetrating our lines of defence. - Julius Caesar, "The Gallic War", 7.81-82
    ---
    #Rome #Roma #RomanArmy #RomanLegion #RomanRepublic #SPQR #JuliusCaesar #Vercingetorix #Alesia #GallicWar #History #RomanHistory #AncientHistory #MilitaryHistory
  • 1,254 11 2 hours ago
  • The upper acropolis or citadel of Pergamum (modern day Bergama), Turkey. The citadel contains the ruins of temples, fortifications, palaces and a 10,000 seat amphitheatre constructed by the Attalid dynasty (281-133 BC), and it’s later Roman rulers.

#history #ancientturkey #pergamum #ancienthistory #35mm #romanhistory
  • The upper acropolis or citadel of Pergamum (modern day Bergama), Turkey. The citadel contains the ruins of temples, fortifications, palaces and a 10,000 seat amphitheatre constructed by the Attalid dynasty (281-133 BC), and it’s later Roman rulers.

    #history #ancientturkey #pergamum #ancienthistory #35mm #romanhistory
  • 12 0 2 hours ago
  • Why is it that so many cultures fear their dead? 
After all, the dead were cherished loved ones while they lived. 
What makes them so dreadful once they die? 
One reason is that death is one of the great rites of passage. 
A rite of passage transitions someone from one well-defined social category to another. 
Categories help us know how to interact with someone. We interact with children quite differently than adults, for example. 
We interact with the living quite differently than the dead, too. 
But when someone falls between categories (no longer a child but not yet an adult, no longer living but not yet resting in peace), it gets complicated. 
This between-ness is called liminality, and there is often disturbance during the liminal period of any rite of passage. Society doesn’t quite know how to treat someone who doesn’t belong to a category, and that brings tension. 
The liminal period of death might be quite short, but often there’s this idea that the dead have a journey of some sort that they must take when they die in order to reach the world of the dead. 
Sometimes this journey is difficult or dangerous or requires the dead to have certain things. 
The liminal dead—those who have ceased to live but aren’t fully a member of the world of the dead—are even more disturbing than those in liminal periods of other rites of passage.

Why? Well, the living can’t be 100% certain when the liminal period ends for the dead. Did they make it okay? Are they all settled in? Are they resting in peace? It isn’t always possible to know for sure. 
And what if they didn’t make it all the way? The idea that a loved one may not be resting in peace is distressing. 
It’s also terrifying—because if they didn’t get all the way to the world of the dead, they may just come back to the world of the living. 
The living often picture these dead who couldn’t complete their journey as angry or malicious, and so fear their return, especially if the living failed to provide the necessary items for their dead. 
Want to learn more? Reserve your spot in my upcoming live webinar (FREE!). Link in bio.
  • Why is it that so many cultures fear their dead?
    After all, the dead were cherished loved ones while they lived.
    What makes them so dreadful once they die?
    One reason is that death is one of the great rites of passage.
    A rite of passage transitions someone from one well-defined social category to another.
    Categories help us know how to interact with someone. We interact with children quite differently than adults, for example.
    We interact with the living quite differently than the dead, too.
    But when someone falls between categories (no longer a child but not yet an adult, no longer living but not yet resting in peace), it gets complicated.
    This between-ness is called liminality, and there is often disturbance during the liminal period of any rite of passage. Society doesn’t quite know how to treat someone who doesn’t belong to a category, and that brings tension.
    The liminal period of death might be quite short, but often there’s this idea that the dead have a journey of some sort that they must take when they die in order to reach the world of the dead.
    Sometimes this journey is difficult or dangerous or requires the dead to have certain things.
    The liminal dead—those who have ceased to live but aren’t fully a member of the world of the dead—are even more disturbing than those in liminal periods of other rites of passage.

    Why? Well, the living can’t be 100% certain when the liminal period ends for the dead. Did they make it okay? Are they all settled in? Are they resting in peace? It isn’t always possible to know for sure.
    And what if they didn’t make it all the way? The idea that a loved one may not be resting in peace is distressing.
    It’s also terrifying—because if they didn’t get all the way to the world of the dead, they may just come back to the world of the living.
    The living often picture these dead who couldn’t complete their journey as angry or malicious, and so fear their return, especially if the living failed to provide the necessary items for their dead.
    Want to learn more? Reserve your spot in my upcoming live webinar (FREE!). Link in bio.
  • 4 1 3 hours ago
  • Horus is one of my favourites Egyptian Gods. Son of Osiris and Isis he was responsible for defeating the God Seth and helped the Pharaohs to rule Egypt. The Eye of Horus is a sign of protection and royal power. There's a temple in Edfu dedicated to the Falcon God, it is the most well preserved temple in Egypt.
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#egypt #traveldeeper #ancientegypt #brasileirosporai #ancienthistory
  • Horus is one of my favourites Egyptian Gods. Son of Osiris and Isis he was responsible for defeating the God Seth and helped the Pharaohs to rule Egypt. The Eye of Horus is a sign of protection and royal power. There's a temple in Edfu dedicated to the Falcon God, it is the most well preserved temple in Egypt.
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    .
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    #egypt #traveldeeper #ancientegypt #brasileirosporai #ancienthistory
  • 57 2 3 hours ago
  • Today's podcast is out! Karen takes you In the Field at the Texas Archaeology Society field school she attends every year! This year they partnered with Texas State Parks & Wildlife in Palo Duro Canyon State Park to look for new sites and check on previously discovered ones. Karen and her father worked on excavating a Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp. The CCC was a voluntary public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. So take a listen to what they found... https://soundcloud.com/musestories/s3e7-in-the-field-texas-archaeological-society-field-school  #history #ancienthistory #archaeology #ancientsites #ccc #palodurocanyon #texas #museums
  • Today's podcast is out! Karen takes you In the Field at the Texas Archaeology Society field school she attends every year! This year they partnered with Texas State Parks & Wildlife in Palo Duro Canyon State Park to look for new sites and check on previously discovered ones. Karen and her father worked on excavating a Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp. The CCC was a voluntary public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. So take a listen to what they found... https://soundcloud.com/musestories/s3e7-in-the-field-texas-archaeological-society-field-school #history #ancienthistory #archaeology #ancientsites #ccc #palodurocanyon #texas #museums
  • 9 0 3 hours ago