The original Osaka castle was built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi on the original site of Ishiyama Honganji Temple, burnt down by Oda Nobunaga. It was symbolic to Hideyoshi's power and the new unified Japan under Hideyoshi's rule. Only few years after Hideyoshi's death, his old friend and rival Tokugawa Ieyasu fought a war against Toyotomi clan and won, Osaka Castle was destroyed, alone with Hideyoshi's son Hideyori. Toyotomi's rule was ended, Tokugawa Shogunate was established, and Osaka Castle was rebuilt, one more.
To me, this part of history make Osaka Castle far more romantic than Himeji Castle, for it symbolised the never ending cycle of destroy and rebirth, just like phoenix arises from its ashes, just like dawn arises from where the dusk fall.
The long colourful stairway in the Tomb of Ramesses VI has been open since antiquity and the paint is still as vibrant today as it was over 3000 years ago.
Along the great stairway we see inscriptions from the Book of the Dead, the Caverns and the Amduat. All these literary texts were important funerary books that would decorate the walls in tombs just like that of Ramesses VI.
The tomb attracted visitors in antiquity who left their own graffiti. There are estimated to be around 650 individual graffitos left by ancient Romans and ancient Greeks. Napoleon and his marauding men also visited the tomb during his disastrous Egyptian Campaign.
Scholars believe the tomb was originally built for Ramesses V who may of been interred there for some time. It is said that Ramesses VI moved his predecessor’s body to another, still undiscovered tomb.
This was clearly an usurping act and is strong evidence to suggest that Ramesses VI wanted to belittle and destroy his predecessor’s name.
I think the long stairway in Ramesses tomb is one of the great wonders of Egypt. What do you think?
The second coffin of Tutankhamun is covered in gilded gold and precious stones. As Howard Carter lifted off the lid of the first sarcophagus he was greeted by yet another coffin - this one.
The face was covered In a decayed layer of linen. As he folded back the cloth the glint of gold shone brightly in the dim light, unearthed after 3500 years.
The Pharaoh’s brow was adorned with lotus petals and cornflowers. The second coffin was revealed to be even more magnificent than the first. It is 2.04 meters long and made from a still unidentified wood overlaid with golden foil.
The eyes are set in obsidian and the crook and flail held in the Pharaoh’s hands are laced with lapis-blue and turquoise glass.
The amount of work that went into this sarcophagus is staggering. It would of taken hundreds of hours to make. A painstaking process that would of been overseen by Tutankhamun himself.
When in Egypt, it's certainly a must that you would go to any and all temples you can to see these ancient monuments that still somehow stand. There's so many to see, and while a day trip to any of them will be exhilarating, there's a temple in Luxor (appropriately named Luxor Temple), that is at its most epic in the evening time.
The special thing about this temple is that while others close earlier in the day, the Luxor Temple stays open later so you can get a glimpse of it at night. The architecture is lit up with lots of lights, making the entire place illuminated.
If you've spent your day exploring all that the city of Luxor has to offer, but you're wondering what to do with your night, save Luxor Temple for when the sun goes down.
If you want it to be extra special, go during blue hour, which is that sweet spot right at the end of sunset where there's still a little light in the sky, but dusk is approaching.
. Who has visited The Temple of Luxor, we'd love to hear your tips.
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78075 hours ago
Around 1200 BC in the nordic bronze age there was a violent clash between two armies in northern Germany by a river in a valley called Tollense.
Loads of bones and finds from the river suggests that around 4000 warriors participated.
This was no battle between local tribes but a battle between two armies who fought with weapons crafted from wood, flint and also bronze which was then the peak of military technology.
Men were riding horses, bashing their enemies skulls in with clubs and there were archers firing arrows from close range lodging arrows deep into the skulls and bones of young men.
(Pictures shows flint and bronze arrow heads lodged into the bones of fallen men)
The bones of the fallen shows alot of physical trauma and that it was indeed a very violent battle.
Studies shows that alot of the men had healed wounds from previous traumas which suggests that this was trained ”professional” warriors, not just some local farmers.
Second picture shows a wooden club and a wooden bat, a good reminder that everyone did not fight with shiny bronze swords in this period.
Studies of the skeletons shows that it was men in the age of 20-40 and of germanic and slavic(polish) origin, suggesting that these two ethnic groups fought and the germanics defeated a slavic attack.
1,1774320 June, 2019
A close up of Tutankhamun’s innermost solid gold coffin. The boy king was buried in not one but three separate sarcophagi. Now that’s extravagant.
When it was discovered it was covered in a thick pitch-like substance. This was probably poured onto the coffin by the priests during the burial ceremony.
When Tutankhamun was found by Howard Carter, he had no idea why this huge coffin was so heavy. Turns out - it was mostly because of the solid gold inner sarcophagus which was responsible for most of the total weight - a whopping 110.4 kilograms.
Adjusted for inflation, the total value of the gold coffin is around 1.7 million USD. The extravagant expense of this sarcophagus goes to show how much money royalty would pour into their tombs to ensure the most dazzling journey to the afterlife.
Interrupting my daily canyon posts to say a new Peru blog post is up! This one covers our last day in Cusco visiting the Inca museum (seeing the mummies) and visiting my favorite building in Cusco, the Qorikancha. .
Visit trails2travel.com for more info and many more photos 😊
During a game of History Hunt, our Young Titans get to use their knowledge of the runic alphabet to decode hidden messages that when combined, reveal the legendary story of the King of Sweden... Bjorn Ironside!!! And where better to retell that story than beside a blazing fire 🔥🔥🔥 Come and experience a legendary workshop at one of our many open days taking place across London’s green spaces this summer. DM us for deets! 🌟
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Gar nicht so weit weg von dem Menhir „Schäferstein“ ist die Menhirgruppe Vierersteine (Viersteine) von Krimpe. In älteren Berichten steht etwas von sechs Steinen, die hier einmal gestanden haben.
In der Sage sind an dieser Stelle die vier Pferde von einem Kutscher zu Stein geworden, wobei der Fuhrknecht selbst der Rätherstein sein soll. An einem von ihnen sind über 100 Nägel eingeschlagen.
Two years ago we took this photo of our ongoing work in the archaeological park in Paphos. Together with our colleagues from Jagiellonian University we are working on the research of ancient Nea Paphos. For this purpose we also use modern prospection methods, such as the magnetometer shown in the photo.
In August it is time again, it will be a small anniversary (5 years). We are very much looking forward to it!
Caesar's record on a Gallic night attack at Alesia
"Then at midnight they suddenly set out from their camp and moved towards our fortifications in the plain. They suddenly raised a shout to inform those besieged in the Oppidum of their approach, and then set about throwing wattles onto the trenches, driving our men off the rampart with slings and arrows and stones, and doing everything necessary to take our position by storm. At the same time Vercingetorix, hearing the noise of the shouting, sounded the trumpet and lead his forces out of the Oppidum. Our men moved up to the fortifications, each one taking up his allotted position, as on previous days. They kept the Gauls off with slings, large stones, bullets and stakes, which they had put ready at intervals along the rampart. It was impossible to see far because of the darkness, and there were heavy casualties on both sides. Many missiles were discharged by our artillery. The Legates Marcus Antonius and Caius Trebonius, who had been assigned to the defence of this sector, brought up men from the more distant redoubts and sent them in to reinforce any point where they had seen our men were under pressure. As long as the Gauls were at a distance from our fortification, they derived more advantage from the great numbers of missiles they were hurling. But when they came closer, the extra devices we had planted there took them by surprise. They got themselves caught up on the 'goads', or they fell into the pits and impaled themselves, or else they were pierced and killed by the javelins and siege spears that we hurled at them from the rampart and towers. They suffered many casualties at every point, but did not succeed anywhere in penetrating our lines of defence. - Julius Caesar, "The Gallic War", 7.81-82
1,254112 hours ago
The upper acropolis or citadel of Pergamum (modern day Bergama), Turkey. The citadel contains the ruins of temples, fortifications, palaces and a 10,000 seat amphitheatre constructed by the Attalid dynasty (281-133 BC), and it’s later Roman rulers.
Why is it that so many cultures fear their dead?
After all, the dead were cherished loved ones while they lived.
What makes them so dreadful once they die?
One reason is that death is one of the great rites of passage.
A rite of passage transitions someone from one well-defined social category to another.
Categories help us know how to interact with someone. We interact with children quite differently than adults, for example.
We interact with the living quite differently than the dead, too.
But when someone falls between categories (no longer a child but not yet an adult, no longer living but not yet resting in peace), it gets complicated.
This between-ness is called liminality, and there is often disturbance during the liminal period of any rite of passage. Society doesn’t quite know how to treat someone who doesn’t belong to a category, and that brings tension.
The liminal period of death might be quite short, but often there’s this idea that the dead have a journey of some sort that they must take when they die in order to reach the world of the dead.
Sometimes this journey is difficult or dangerous or requires the dead to have certain things.
The liminal dead—those who have ceased to live but aren’t fully a member of the world of the dead—are even more disturbing than those in liminal periods of other rites of passage.
Why? Well, the living can’t be 100% certain when the liminal period ends for the dead. Did they make it okay? Are they all settled in? Are they resting in peace? It isn’t always possible to know for sure.
And what if they didn’t make it all the way? The idea that a loved one may not be resting in peace is distressing.
It’s also terrifying—because if they didn’t get all the way to the world of the dead, they may just come back to the world of the living.
The living often picture these dead who couldn’t complete their journey as angry or malicious, and so fear their return, especially if the living failed to provide the necessary items for their dead.
Want to learn more? Reserve your spot in my upcoming live webinar (FREE!). Link in bio.
413 hours ago
Horus is one of my favourites Egyptian Gods. Son of Osiris and Isis he was responsible for defeating the God Seth and helped the Pharaohs to rule Egypt. The Eye of Horus is a sign of protection and royal power. There's a temple in Edfu dedicated to the Falcon God, it is the most well preserved temple in Egypt.
Today's podcast is out! Karen takes you In the Field at the Texas Archaeology Society field school she attends every year! This year they partnered with Texas State Parks & Wildlife in Palo Duro Canyon State Park to look for new sites and check on previously discovered ones. Karen and her father worked on excavating a Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp. The CCC was a voluntary public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. So take a listen to what they found... https://soundcloud.com/musestories/s3e7-in-the-field-texas-archaeological-society-field-school #history#ancienthistory#archaeology#ancientsites#ccc#palodurocanyon#texas#museums