SABIAS QUE....En tus manos vives más de 150 especies de bacterias y de estas más de la mitad tiene potencias patógeno, es decir de enfermarnos..... Esa es la razón por la cual se recomienda el lavado adecuado de manos. Lo cual implica técnica, momentos y tiempo adecuados, que pronto estaremos compartiendo con ustedes mis queridas mamis
⚠️ seizure warning ⚠️ .
special dt 2 bday boy @a_museing_
5831 hour ago
Las fallas en el suministro de agua han comprometido la higiene y la salud de los venezolanos. El uso de agua no segura, como la recogida en las calles, representa un riesgo para la salud, explica María Graciela López, presidenta de la Sociedad Venezolana de Infectología. Quienes la utilizan para asearse o beber corren peligro de contaminarse con parásitos, virus o bacterias. .
Sobre las infecciones bacterianas, López detalló que pudiera haber presencia de bacterias como shigella, salmonella y Escherichia coli en el agua. Los síntomas de la amibiasis y la giardiasis, infecciones causadas por protozoarios, pueden producirse semanas después de haber ingerido agua contaminada. También existe el riesgo de la proliferación de casos de hepatitis A por las precarias condiciones de higiene. .
HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV.Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and male circumcision.Disease in a baby can often be prevented by giving both the mother and child antiretroviral medication.There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy.Treatment is recommended as soon as the diagnosis is made.Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years.
In 2016, about 36.7 million people were living with HIV and it resulted in 1 million deaths.There were 300,000 fewer new HIV cases in 2016 than in 2015.Most of those infected live in sub-Saharan Africa.From the time AIDS was identified in the early 1980s to 2017, the disease has caused an estimated 35 million deaths worldwide.HIV/AIDS is considered a pandemic—a disease outbreak which is present over a large area and is actively spreading.HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late 19th or early 20th century.AIDS was first recognized by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause—HIV infection—was identified in the early part of the decade.
HIV/AIDS has had a large impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination.The disease also has large economic impacts.There are many misconceptions about HIV/AIDS such as the belief that it can be transmitted by casual non-sexual contact. The disease has become subject to many controversies involving religion including the Catholic Church's position not to support condom use as prevention.It has attracted international medical and political attention as well as large-scale funding since it was identified in the 1980s.(On the photo-The red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS.)
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness.Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms.As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumorsthat rarely affect people who have uncompromised immune systems.These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).This stage is often also associated with unintended weight loss.
Early: flu like illness
Later: Large lymph nodes, fever, weight loss
Opportunistic infections, tumors
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Exposure to blood, breast milk, sex
Safe sex, needle exchange, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, post-exposure prophylaxis
Near normal life expectancy with treatment
11 years life expectancy without treatment
1.8 million new cases (2016)
36.7 million living with HIV (2016)
1.0 million (2016).(On the photo-1.HIV pathogen.)
Recién terminada la lectura de este más que recomendable libro, debo decir algo a mis alumnos y ex-alumnos: chic@s, OS PIDO DISCULPAS. Este bien documentado libro me ha hecho ver que no he sido riguroso al explicar como funciona nuestro sistema de regulación homeostática que los libros denominan Sistema Inmune. ¡Prometo enmendar la plana!
Scientists in Canada have used CRISPR-Cas9 technology to identify potential new targets for glioblastoma (GBM), the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults.
The approach used genome editing to effectively reverse engineer patient-derived, tumor-propagating glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) gene by gene, and identify genes that are essential for tumor growth.
In addition to highlighting a number of possible glioblastoma targets, the studies provided new insights into the basis of glioblastoma resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, and potential strategies for combination treatment.
“This is one of the first studies of its kind, where CRISPR screens are performed directly in multiple freshly isolated patient cells in parallel,” commented research co-lead Stéphane Angers, PhD, a professor at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto.
“This study has provided a massive amount of new information that the research community can now interrogate to help design new treatment strategies.”
“In summary, our genome-wide CRISPR screens in patient-derived GSC cultures have identified a diversity of genetic vulnerabilities and contain a wealth of data that can be further mined to identify drug targets for GBM,” the authors concluded.
“Future studies will seek to identify the precise mechanism by which these genes and pathways modulate the fitness and/or chemosensitivity of GSCs, and whether they contribute to disease progression in vivo.”
[credit: Graham MacLeod et al., GEN]🌐
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